ACC&D Product Profile and Position Papers
ACC&D has built a library of Product Profile and Position Papers (4Ps) on contraceptive and sterilant technologies. Most approaches do not meet our priorities of demonstrating safety, efficacy, and permanence in one treatment. However, because these products were or are available, we often receive questions about them, and we hope the information in these documents will help those who are considering these products make the best decision for the animals in their care. Don't be a stranger to this page, as we'll be adding products to this section routinely.
Dogspiral is an intrauterine device (IUD). It was developed by two veterinarians in Bosnia as a less invasive alternative to sterilization for female dogs. It became commercially available for dogs worldwide in 2014 via sales over the Internet. Data on the safety and efficacy of the Dogspiral IUD is extremely limited; data on other intrauterine devices and expert input raise concerns about Dogspiral safety and ease of use.
GnRH-hemocyanin conjugate immunocontraceptive vaccine formulations have been shown to prevent reproduction in multiple mammalian species for extended periods. GonaCon™ and GonaCon-Equine™ are registered with the U.S. EPA for female white-tailed deer and wild/feral horses and burros, respectively. A study indicating that a GnRH-hemocyanin conjugate immunocontraceptive vaccine had potential for multi-year contraception in cats prompted additional studies including this one sponsored by ACC&D. Work to develop an effective, safe formulation for free-roaming dogs is ongoing.
Progestins are a category of drugs, with both oral and injectable options and a variety of active ingredients, that are used for temporary suppression of reproduction in cats and dogs of both sexes. Regulatory approval and popularity varies by country. Although in many cases effective for short-term contraception in owned cats and dogs, progestational drugs are associated with a variety of adverse effects; the risks and benefits of use in each clinical situation must be carefully evaluated under veterinary oversight.
Suprelorin® is a subcutaneous implant which contains the active ingredient deslorelin acetate, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist that causes infertility by down-regulating pituitary receptors for GnRH, suppressing gonadotropins as well as testosterone. It is manufactured in two versions, both for male dogs, which induce infertility for a minimum of 6 months or 12 months. Suprelorin is available in the European Union, Australia and New Zealand for use in dogs.
Zeuterin® (marketed as Esterisol® in some countries) is a non-surgical sterilant for male dogs delivered via intratesticular injection. The Active ingredient is zinc gluconate neutralized with arginine. The formulation causes permanent sterility in one treatment. The process of neutering with Zeuterin/ EsteriSol is also known as "zinc neutering." Notice: Zeuterin was commercially launched in the U.S. in 2014, following approval and use in several other countries by the name EsterilSol. The product, which was manufactured by Ark Sciences, is not currently being produced or distributed in any country due to the manufacturer’s financial challenges. While there is presently no indication of returning to the market, the formulation retains approval by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA).